Some of what you ask isn’t exposed to any end user whether you’re a new user or trusted user with 20k rep or an elected moderator.
However, most of that data is already available from the periodic data dumps and Stack Exchange data explorer interface.
Comments are trivial to look at:
Change the user and pick out any data you wish to review.
Also, I wouldn’t worry too much about single votes to close or even patterns as an end user. Those votes aren’t binding and are easily reviewed, challenged, undone - the system is designed to withstand malicious actors so people acting in good faith rarely cause issues.
I echo Patrix in that the moderation team is collaborative and is given detailed guidance and support by the community team - we end up being much more than the same user as before with a diamond tacked on our names.
Lastly, we rarely need to worry about pleasing or dis-pleasing and instead we just help when pattern are starting to form to reach out to a person and say “hey - I see a few of your questions were closed recently - can I help you work on them to edit or are the guidelines clear at this point” or “hey - I can see both sides of this. Rather than keep editing this post - let’s get a new post up to make the point for which you are making a good case.”
We really do moderate far more than discipline or act unilaterally and when we do act unilaterally - we have channels to get someone else to double check our work to make sure we weren’t missing something or not too hasty.